What Are The Treatments For Migraine
There is no absolute cure for migraine. However, lots of treatments are available to help ease the symptoms of a migraine attack.
When a migraine attack occurs, most people find that lying down in a quiet, dark room is helpful. Sleeping can also help. Some people find that their symptoms die down after they have vomited .
Most people affected by migraine will already have tried paracetamol, aspirin and perhaps anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen before they seek advice from their doctor. If ordinary painkillers alone are not relieving your symptoms, your GP might prescribe you a triptan to be taken in addition to over-the-counter painkillers . Triptans are available in different forms to suit individuals , although it is important to note that some people develop short-term side effects when taking triptans. Your doctor may also prescribe you anti-sickness medication. If your situation does not improve after treatment, you might be referred to a specialist migraine clinic.
It is important to avoid taking painkillers on more than two days per week or more than 10 days per month as this can in fact make things worse by triggering medication overuse headaches.
Visual Disturbance Of Migraine Is Short
The visual disturbances of migraine generally last less than an hour, most commonly 10-30 minutes. Sometimes they only last seconds. They may or may not be associated with a headache, and some individuals only experience the visual symptoms without headaches. The visual symptoms usually start before the headache but may occur during the headache.
To complicate the issue, migraine may change throughout life. The character of the headache may change, and the visual symptoms may change. The most common pattern is for the headaches to become less severe or even go away, with episodes of visual aura persisting. Some people only experience migraine-related visual symptoms, often without headache, starting at age 50 or later.
Do I Need Different Tests
With any kind of migraine, your doctor may ask you things like:
- Do other people in your family have migraines or other kinds of headaches?
- Do you have any allergies?
- What is the level of stress in your life?
- Do you use medications such as birth control pills or vasodilators that could cause headaches?
- Do you notice that headaches start after coughing or sneezing or after intense exercise?
Theyâll do tests to check for other conditions that could cause your symptoms. You may have blood or imaging tests, like a CT or MRI.
Symptoms of a migraine with aura can look like a more serious condition, such as a stroke or a seizure. To rule those out, you may get some extra tests, including an eye exam. You might also be more likely to have imaging tests.
The first time you notice an aura, it’s important to get medical care right away to find out what’s going on.
Once you’ve made sure there are no other issues, you don’t need to see your doctor every time you have that same aura. But if your symptoms change, make sure to check in.
Don’t Miss: Sumatriptan Pregnancy
Common Symptoms Of A Migraine
The main symptom of a migraine is usually an intense headache on 1 side of the head.
The pain is usually a moderate or severe throbbing sensation that gets worse when you move and prevents you carrying out normal activities.
In some cases, the pain can occur on both sides of your head and may affect your face or neck.
What Is A Migraine
A migraine is not simply a bad headache. A migraine is an intense headache that may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea , vomiting , visual problems and an increased sensitivity to light or sound.
Migraines commonly last between four hours and three days. Some people experience migraines several times a week. Others might only experience attacks every few years. If you experience headaches on 15 days or more each month, and eight of these headaches are migraines, this is known as chronic migraine.
Although migraines are not life-threatening and do not shorten peoples life expectancies, they can significantly damage the quality of peoples lives. A World Health Organisation study identified migraine as the sixth highest cause worldwide of years lost due to disability . Repeated migraines can have a negative impact on family life, social life and employment.
There are two main types of migraine: migraine without aura and migraine with aura .
You May Like: Sinus Migraine Weather
What Are The Symptoms Of An Ocular Migraine
The most common ocular migraine symptom is a small blind spot that impairs your central vision in one eye.
This blind spot expands, making it difficult to drive safely or read using the affected eye.
In addition to the flickering blind spot, other migraine symptoms include:
- A colorful light ring that is wavy or zigzag and surrounds a central blind spot
- A blind spot that slowly migrates across your field of vision
- A migraine lasting between 4 and 42 hours
- Sensitivity to light or sound
- Vision loss
- Nausea and vomiting
- A headache that feels worse when you move your head
If you have blind spots or other visual symptoms and arent sure whether it’s an ocular migraine or a visual migraine, cover one eye at a time and observe your sense of sight. If the visual disturbance affects one eye only, it is most likely an ocular migraine.
When To Seek Professional Treatment
Many symptoms of migraine with aura mimic other more severe neurological disorders such as strokes and transient ischemic attack , which is a temporary condition with symptoms that strongly resemble a stroke. TIAs may indicate a high risk for stroke.
You should seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of the following:
- Weakness on one side of the body
- Slurred speech
- Symptoms that last longer than 60 minutes or don’t stop at all
You May Like: Numb Tongue Migraine
Types Of Migraine With Aura
Migraine with aura is fairly common, and anyone with migraine can experience auras. However, some subtypes of migraine are particularly likely to involve auras.
Specialists have previously referred to migraine with aura as classic migraine, focal migraine, aphasic migraine, and complicated migraine.
Other, rare types of migraine that cause auras include:
When To Get Medical Advice
You should see a GP if you have frequent or severe migraine symptoms that cannot be managed with occasional use of over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol.
Try not to use the maximum dosage of painkillers on a regular or frequent basis as this could make it harder to treat headaches over time.
You should also make an appointment to see a GP if you have frequent migraines , even if they can be controlled with medicine, as you may benefit from preventative treatment.
You should call 999 for an ambulance immediately if you or someone you’re with experiences:
- paralysis or weakness in 1 or both arms or 1 side of the face
- slurred or garbled speech
- a sudden agonising headache resulting in a severe pain unlike anything experienced before
- headache along with a high temperature , stiff neck, mental confusion, seizures, double vision and a rash
Read Also: Migraine With Fever
Migraine With Aura Symptoms
Migraines with aura include additional visual and non-visual symptoms that can provide a useful warning that a headache is on its way.1
The visual aura symptoms may include:1,2
- Geometric patterns
- A shimmering effect
These may appear in the center of your field of vision and gradually spread outward.1,2 Some people also experience blind spots or tunnel vision.
Non-visual aura symptoms may include:1,2
- Tingling or numbness in the hands or face
- Dizziness or vertigo
- Difficulty with speech and/or hearing
- A sense of fear or confusion
- Partial paralysis or fainting
Auras usually develop over the course of five to 20 minutes and last fewer than 60 minutes. The head pain and other symptoms associated with classic migraines typically come after the aura, but might begin during the auraas well.1
In rare cases, you may experience the aura without a migraine following this is more common in people over the age of 50.1,2
What Type Of Doctor Do You See For Ocular Migraines
If you have ocular migraines, you can see an ophthalmologist oran optometrist.
Optometrists are eye care specialists who offer primary vision care services, including:
- Vision testing
- Correction of visual problems
- Treatment and management of visual issues and eye diseases
On the other hand, ophthalmologists are medical practitioners who specialize in eye and vision care. They differ from optometrists in their degrees of schooling as well as what they can diagnose and cure.
An ophthalmologist is a healthcare professional who has finished college and has at least eight years of further medical studies. He or she is licensed to practice medicine and surgery. Ophthalmologists hold a Doctor of Medicine degree.
Optometrists are healthcare professionals who complete four additional years of school after finishing undergraduate studies. They hold a Doctor of Optometry degree.
Also Check: Sumatriptan While Pregnant
Why Do I Get Frequent Ocular Migraines
For migraine sufferers, visual disturbances like zigzag lines or flashes of light are common occurrences, especially in those who experience an aura prior to a migraine. But some people experience these visual disturbances and do not get the pain associated with a migraine. These visual disturbances are known as ocular migraines or migraines of the eye. But what exactly are they and why do they happen so frequently?
What Medicines Help Relieve Migraine Pain
For mild to moderate migraines, over-the-counter medicines that may help relieve migraine pain include:
- An acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine combination
People who have more severe migraines may need to try abortive prescription medicines. A medicine called ergotamine can be effective alone or combined with other medicines. Dihydroergotamine is related to ergotamine and can be helpful. Other prescription medicines for migraines include sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, almotriptan, eletriptan, and frovatriptan.
If the pain wont go away, stronger pain medicine may be needed, such as a narcotic, or medicines that contain a barbiturate . These medicines can be habit-forming and should be used cautiously. Your doctor may prescribe these only if they are needed and only for a short period of time.
You May Like: Medication For Seizures And Migraines
Signs And Symptoms Of Migraine Auras
Migraines with aura affect different senses and bodily functions.
The main symptoms include:
- Visual symptoms: Visual symptoms are the most frequently reported. Up to 99% of people who experience migraine with aura report visual symptoms. These symptoms can include seeing black dots, flashes of light, blind spots, and zigzag lines, or things may appear closer or farther away than they actually are.
- Sensory symptoms: Sensory symptoms include feeling numbness or tingling anywhere on the body, particularly the face, hands, and fingers.
- Speech and language symptoms: Speech and language symptoms include slurred speech, inability to form words, mumbling, and difficulty speaking.
- Motor weakness: In some instances, motor weakness will occur. This may appear as muscle weakness or even temporary paralysis on one side of the body. This type of migraine aura is known as a hemiplegic migraine.
There are also general symptoms that both migraines and migraines with aura share.
The typical symptoms of migraine include:
- Throbbing or pulsing pain in the head
- Sensitivity to light and sound
Signs and symptoms of migraine auras vary widely among the people who experience them, and even from one attack to the next.
What Causes An Aura
Researchers believe auras are caused by something called a cortical spreading depression, or slow-moving wave of electrical activity across the cortex of the brain , says Lisa Smith, a spokesperson for the Association of Migraine Disorders in North Kingstown, RI. These waves can disrupt vision and other senses for a short period of time, she says. When cortical spreading depression hits the visual cortex, people experience visual distortions. Although auras usually arent painful or dangerous by themselves, they can make activities like driving difficult.
Read Also: Tylenol Or Ibuprofen For Migraine
Treatment Options For Migraine With Aura
Your treatment options depend on how often you have attacks and how severe they are. It will also depend on other factors such as other illnesses you may have or medication that you take.
Generally, treatment for migraine includes:
- Acute treatment such as over the counter painkillers, migraine specific treatments and anti-sickness medication. These treatments aim to help manage the symptoms when an attack comes on. You do need to be careful not to take certain acute treatments too many days a month as this can cause medication overuse headache. Medication overuse can cause daily headaches with migraine symptoms.
- Preventive treatment such as beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants or anti-epilepsy drugs. These treatments aim to reduce how often you have migraine attacks and how bad they are. You take them every day and build them up to an effective dose. Some people need to try a range of treatments, or may be referred to a specialist if the treatments dont work for them.
Alongside the treatments many people benefit from reviewing whether lifestyle changes can help with their migraine attacks. This can include things like sticking to a routine, waking up at the same time each day, eating at similar times each day and staying hydrated. If there are factors such as alcohol or lack of sleep that seem to trigger your migraine attacks, there might be changes that you can make to help reduce how often you have attacks.
Data Analysis And Statistics
The primary endpoints of our analysis were the overall incidence of headache and associated symptoms in all attacks at baseline and the number of attacks fulfilling the criteria for migraine with aura at baseline. Additional endpoints were the number of attacks fulfilling the criteria for migraine relative to timing of aura .
Data from individual attacks in phase I and II were summarized using frequency counts with percentages and descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviation. Internal consistency of reporting of multiple different attacks by individual subjects was measured using Cronbach analysis. All analyses were performed with SPSS for Windows 17.0 .
You May Like: Migraine Seizure Medications
What Are The Preventive Treatments For Migraine
Many patients with isolated visual migraines, without severe headaches, have relatively infrequent episodes that do not require specific preventive treatments. If a patient is aware of the particular triggers that seem to bring on an episode, then those triggers can be avoided.
In patients where the pattern of migraines includes frequent, severe headaches, it is very reasonable to consider additional preventive treatments. The main goal for any of these strategies is to reduce the overall frequency and severity of the headaches. None of the preventive treatments is a magic bullet that is 100% effective. For example, it would be considered successful if a preventive treatment helped reduce the number of severe headaches from 8 per month to 2-4 per month.
There are numerous medications that can be used as a preventive treatment for migraine. One medication that is used commonly, particularly because it has no side effects, is vitamin B2 . Approximately 100mg of riboflavin daily is thought to improve migraine headaches . One common side effect of riboflavin is that the urine turns bright yellow. Other herbal medications used to reduce migraine headaches include petasites and feverfew.
How Is It Treated
It can be hard to treat migraine aura without pain. Symptoms often go away faster than drugs, such as triptans and NSAIDs, work. However, some people find that migraine symptoms like nausea and sensitivity to light get better with treatment.
There are no FDA-approved drugs specifically for migraine aura with pain or silent migraine. Some small studies have tested the use of magnesium, aspirin, lamotrigine , and ketamine.
Also Check: How To Fake A Headache
Migraine With Aura Prevention
If other treatments donât work and you have 4 or more migraine days a month, your doctor may suggest preventive medicines. You take these regularly to make migraines less strong or happen less often. These include seizure medicines, blood pressure medicines , and some antidepressants. A new class of preventive medicine called CGRP inhibitors may also help.
Your doctor can also prescribe a device, Cefaly, that uses a method called transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation. You wear it as a headband on your forehead and turn it on daily for 20 minutes to prevent migraines.
Avoid your triggers. Common ones include:
- Certain foods
Treating Migraine Aura Without Headache
When migraine aura without headache is frequent or severe, your doctor can recommend treatment options, such as low dose aspirin, calcium channel blockers or other medications.
My favorite treatment has been baby aspirin, if they dont have any contraindication for baby aspirin, says Dr. Digre. Calcium channel blockers often will treat aura without headache if its frequent.
For people who experience onset of migraine aura later in life, the symptoms can be very severe and last for several days. In that case, Dr. Digre usually prescribes a calcium channel blocker, but other medications can be used.
There arent any specific lifestyle adjustments to treat migraine aura without headache. However, taking steps like getting adequate sleep, decreasing stress and avoiding known migraine triggers may help prevent aura without headache.
The American Migraine Foundation is committed to improving the lives of those living with this debilitating disease. For more of the latest news and information on migraine, visit the AMF Resource Library. For help finding a healthcare provider, check out our Find a Doctor tool. Together, we are as relentless as migraine.
Reviewed for accuracy by the American Migraine Foundations subject matter experts, headache specialists and medical advisers with deep knowledge and training in headache medicine. to read about our editorial board members.
Read Also: Vestibular Migraine Natural Remedies