What Are Some Migraine Risk Factors And Triggers
Some things make you more likely to get migraine headaches . Other things may bring on a migraine .
Common migraine risk factors include the following:
- Family history: You are much more likely to have migraines if one or both of your parents had migraines.
- Sex: Women are more likely than men to have migraines.
- Age: Most people have their first migraine during adolescence, but migraines can start at any age, usually before age 40.
Common migraine triggers include the following:
- Food and drink: Certain food and drink may cause migraines. Dehydration and dieting or skipping meals may also trigger migraines.
- Hormone changes: Women may experience migraines related to their menstrual cycles, to menopause, or to using hormonal birth control or hormone replacement therapy.
- Stress: Stress may trigger migraines. Stress includes feeling overwhelmed at home or work, but your body can also be stressed if you exercise too much or dont get enough sleep.
- Senses: Loud sounds, bright lights , or strong smells may trigger migraines.
- Medicines: Certain medicines may trigger migraines. If you think your migraines might be related to your medicine, talk to your doctor. Your doctor may be able to prescribe a different medicine.
- Illness: Infections, such as the cold or the flu, may trigger migraines, especially in children.
Foods that may trigger migraines:
- aged, canned, cured, or processed meat
- aged cheese
- soy sauce
What Is The Prognosis For People With Migraines
Migraines are unique to each individual. Likewise, how migraines are managed is also unique. The best outcomes are usually achieved by learning and avoiding personal migraine triggers, managing symptoms, practicing preventive methods, following the advice of your healthcare provider and reporting any significant changes as soon as they occur.
Throbbing Pain On One Or Both Sides Of The Head
Pulsating pain is a classic sign of migraines. The throbbing is often felt on one side of the head.
In an online survey of patients with migraines, the National Headache Foundation found that 50% “always” have throbbing on one side, while 34% say they “frequently” have this symptom.
Migraine pain often burrows behind the eye.
People will blame it on eye strain and many will get their eyes checked, but that won’t make their headaches any better, Dr. Messina says.
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What Is The Treatment
Migraine is complex and there are different treatments available. The right treatment for you will depend on the type of migraine, your symptoms, how often you have attacks and how bad they are. It will also depend on your medical history.
Migraine treatment usually includes acute treatment such as painkillers and anti-sickness medication to stop or shorten an attack. If you are having more than four attacks a month you can ask your GP about preventive treatment. This is usually taken every day to reduce how often you have attacks and how bad they are.
Reviewing any lifestyle factors or triggers that may contribute to the attacks, such as stress, change in routine and sleep patterns, can help. There is currently no cure for migraine.
Why Do Some People Get Migraine
Researchers are still investigating the mechanism by which the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes headaches. Many of the current theories include the involvement of the .
The trigeminal nerve is a large thats important for movement and feeling for parts of your face and head. Activation of trigeminal nerve pathways is also associated with migraine and other .
Its thought that SARS-CoV-2 infection could potentially trigger a headache via the trigeminal nerve in several possible ways:
- direct viral infection of trigeminal nerve endings, which can be found in the nasal passages
- invasion of vascular tissues, leading to changes that may stimulate trigeminal nerve endings
- a release of various inflammatory molecules leading to an inflammatory storm secondary to infection
While some headaches due to COVID-19 may be similar to migraine attacks, its important to note that a wide spectrum of headaches has been described in association with COVID-19. These can include headaches that are:
- similar to a headache that youd experience when you have the or the
Research into COVID-19 and its associated risk factors is ongoing. Theres currently no evidence to suggest that people who have migraine have an increased risk for COVID-19.
The CDC has developed a list of conditions that, based on current research, may put you at increased risk for serious COVID-19 illness. Migraine isnt currently on this list.
COVID-19 can have . Some of these include:
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How Are Migraines Treated
Migraine headaches are chronic. They cant be cured, but they can be managed and possibly improved. There are two main treatment approaches that use medications: abortive and preventive.
- Abortive medications are most effective when you use them at the first sign of a migraine. Take them while the pain is mild. By possibly stopping the headache process, abortive medications help stop or decrease your migraine symptoms, including pain, nausea, light sensitivity, etc. Some abortive medications work by constricting your blood vessels, bringing them back to normal and relieving the throbbing pain.
- Preventive medications may be prescribed when your headaches are severe, occur more than four times a month and are significantly interfering with your normal activities. Preventive medications reduce the frequency and severity of the headaches. Medications are generally taken on a regular, daily basis to help prevent migraines.
Barriers To Effective Care
Lack of knowledge among health-care providers is the principal clinical barrier. Worldwide, on average, only 4 hours of undergraduate medical education are dedicated to instruction on headache disorders. A large number of people with headache disorders are not diagnosed and treated: worldwide only 40% of those with migraine or TTH are professionally diagnosed, and only 10% of those with MOH.
Poor awareness extends to the general public. Headache disorders are not perceived by the public as serious since they are mostly episodic, do not cause death, and are not contagious. The low consultation rates in developed countries may indicate that many affected people are unaware that effective treatments exist. Half of people with headache disorders are estimated to be self-treating.
Many governments, seeking to constrain health-care costs, do not acknowledge the substantial burden of headache on society. They might not recognize that the direct costs of treating headache are small in comparison with the huge indirect-cost savings that might be made if resources were allocated to treat headache disorders appropriately.
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Migraine ‘with Aura’ Versus ‘without Aura’
Migraine headache is subdivided into two different types: Migraine With Aura and Migraine Without Aura. Most patients do not have an aura, which is a brief period immediately prior to the headache during which a neurological event occurs. This event is most commonly a brief period of abnormal vision, such as seeing spots, zig-zag lines, or unusual colors. Less common auras include weakness in an arm or leg, funny feelings in an arm or leg, and trouble speaking or understanding other’s speech. Auras typically last less than one hour and completely resolve.
Recent Research Opens The Door To Future Migraine Treatments
More than a decade of work done since the Human Genome Project has substantially clarified the mysteries behind the common migraine. Genome-wide association studies will soon make it possible to rapidly investigate the genetic correlations of migraine across entire populations of people.
The development of such studies also allows for meta-analysis that is, analyzing the results of large numbers of studies, which themselves analyze the health status of thousands or tens of thousands of patients. Through these methods, we know more about migraines than we ever have before.
2012 research in the Journal of Headache Pain continued to push toward effective identification of key factors involved in non-aura migraines and those with complicated, multi-gene factors. Multiple new gene factors were illuminated, many of which had never been suspected.
In August 2013, two major new studies appeared: One in the Journal of Head and Face Pain and another in Nature Genetics. Both studies continued to fill in the blanks on migraine, showing multiple new loci a specific position on a chromosome associated with migraine.
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What Medicines Help Relieve Migraine Pain
For mild to moderate migraines, over-the-counter medicines that may help relieve migraine pain include:
- an acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine combination
People who have more severe migraines may need to try abortive prescription medicines. A medicine called ergotamine can be effective alone or combined with other medicines. Dihydroergotamine is related to ergotamine and can be helpful. Other prescription medicines for migraines include sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, almotriptan, eletriptan, and frovatriptan.
If the pain wont go away, stronger pain medicine may be needed, such as a narcotic, or medicines that contain a barbiturate . These medicines can be habit-forming and should be used cautiously. Your doctor may prescribe these only if they are needed and only for a short period of time.
When To Get Medical Advice
You should see a GP if you have frequent or severe migraine symptoms.
Simple painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, can be effective for migraine.
Try not to use the maximum dosage of painkillers on a regular or frequent basis as this could make it harder to treat headaches over time.
You should also make an appointment to see a GP if you have frequent migraines , even if they can be controlled with medicines, as you may benefit from preventative treatment.
You should call 999 for an ambulance immediately if you or someone you’re with experiences:
- paralysis or weakness in 1 or both arms or 1 side of the face
- slurred or garbled speech
- a sudden agonising headache resulting in a severe pain unlike anything experienced before
- headache along with a high temperature , stiff neck, mental confusion, seizures, double vision and a rash
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What Are The Symptoms Of Migraines
Migraine symptoms include recurring headaches with severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on just one side of the head, often accompanied by nausea, acidity, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound , lacrimation, and giddiness.
Symptoms may also vary across different stages as well as types of migraine .
Treatment For Migraine Headaches
Find out what your triggers are and avoid them. Keep a headache diary so you can track things like what you’ve eaten and had to drink, how much you’ve slept, activities you’ve taken part in, weather, and other factors. After you’ve had a few migraine headaches, you can see what things they have in common.
You may be able to catch a migraine on the front-end. Abortive medications, which you take as soon as you feel one coming on, can often stop the process. Drugstores carry over-the-counter ibuprofen medications specifically for migraine headaches. If they aren’t enough to help, your doctor may prescribe stronger medications.
If you don’t respond to other treatments and you have more than 4 migraine headache days a month, your doctor may suggest preventive medicines. You can take these regularly to reduce the severity or frequency of the headaches. These include seizure medicines, blood pressure medicines , and some antidepressants.
It’s also possible you will be prescribed use of external medical devices for relief. They include a hand-held called gammaCore which is a noninvasive vagus nerve stimulator . I, it can be placed on the vagus nerve in the neck to interrupt verve signals for migraine relief. Another device called a SpringTMS can be used for treatment or prevention or migraines. It is placed on the back of the head and gives off a pulse of magnetic energy into part of the brain to stop or ease
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When Should I Seek Immediate Help Or Contact My Healthcare Provider
- You are experiencing the worst headache of my life.
- You are having neurologic symptoms that youve never had before, including speaking difficulty, balance problems, vision problems, mental confusion, seizures or numbing/tingling sensations.
- Your headache comes on suddenly.
- You have a headache after experiencing a head injury.
Schedule a visit with your healthcare provider if:
- The number or severity of your headaches increase or your headache pattern changes.
- Your medications no longer seem to be working or youre experiencing new or different side effects.
Is It A Headache Or A Migraine
Headaches. We all get them and you know the feeling. Sharp, throbbing pain or a dull ache. Headaches are the most common form of pain, but if they’re making you miss out on work or school, it might be time to see a doctor. Not all headaches need a doctor’s attention, but when they start to affect your daily activities or quality of life, it’s time to talk to an expert.
Alli Hock from Salt Lake City started out with migraines a few times a year that turned into debilitating chronic migraines several times a week. She stopped traveling, activities and going out with friends.
“I was miserable, she recalls.
Alli now takes a combination of medications and Botox which has changed her life. “I don’t think you could put into words. Before, I had given up what my life used to be and wasn’t sure I could get back. Thats changed, she said.
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Headache Vs Migraine Symptoms
Headaches typically cause pain in your head that can be described as pressure or aching. The pain can range from mild to severe and last anywhere from 30 minutes to a week. Pain from headaches can occur in the forehead, temples and the back of the neck.;;There are many different kinds of headaches, but the three most common include:
- Tension headaches: Typically, people feel the pain spread across both sides of their head, often starting in the back and creeping forward. Its the most common form of headache and can be due to eyestrain, stress and hunger.
- Sinus headaches: People often experience these headaches when theyre sick or congested. These headaches are caused by swelling in the sinuses and cause pain behind the cheeks, nose and eyes. It can be at its worst in the morning or after bending over.
- Medication overuse/Rebound headaches: People often experience this type of headache from regular, long-term use of pain medication to treat headaches. Rebound headaches tend to occur daily and may improve with pain relief medication, but will return once it wears off due to withdrawal. Once a person stops taking pain medication, the rebound headache should go away.
- Increased sensitivity to light, sound or smells
- Temporary vision loss
- Seeing spots or flashing lights
- Pain behind one ear or eye, or in the temples
- Extreme fatigue
How Common Are Headache Disorders
Globally, it has been estimated that prevalence among adults of current headache disorder is about 50%. Half to three quarters of adults aged 1865 years in the world have had headache in the last year and, among those individuals, 30% or more have reported migraine. Headache on 15 or more days every month affects 1.74% of the worlds adult population. Despite regional variations, headache disorders are a worldwide problem, affecting people of all ages, races, income levels and geographical areas.
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The Link Between Your Genes And Migraines
The answer to whether you can inherit migraine problems from your parents or grandparents is unclear.
Substantial research points to a link between certain genetic traits and developing migraines. However, not everyone with these genes suffers from migraines, and there are numerous environmental triggers to take into account as well.
When one parent suffers from migraines, children have a 50% risk of also developing it. If both parents have recurring migraines, their kids have a 75% risk of suffering from migraines in the future.
In fact, over 80% of people who have migraines also have close family members who deal with the condition. This doesnt mean that having problems with migraines is inevitable based on genetics, but it does prove that hereditary factors at least play a role.
This idea isnt really surprising to doctors since many aspects of health have hereditary factors to consider. For Example, when your doctor asks whether you have any family members with kidney problems or high blood pressure, its because genes can increase your risk of developing related issues in the future.
These connections come down to DNA, which is the individual genetic code that determines your personal characteristics. From your eye color and height to how your body responds to specific stimuli its all in your DNA.
What Are The Foods That Trigger Migraines
Foods that trigger migraines include chocolate, cheese, and dairy products, foods with a strong smell, food additives, such as nitrates , and aspartame , as well as monosodium glutamate . Tyramine may also act as a trigger, which is often found in fermented or aged foods, like aged cheeses and soy sauce. Additionally, alcohol and caffeine also act as migraine triggers.
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Are Migraines Hereditary
Migraines tend to run in families. As many as four out of five people with migraines have a family history. If one parent has a history of migraines, their child has a 50% chance of having them. If both parents have a history of migraines, the risk jumps to 75%. Again, up to 80% of people with migraines have a first-degree relative with the disease.