Migraine Severity And Related Disability Were Greater In Those With A History Of Mtbi
Within our study population, 38% of patients with migraine reported a history of mTBI, which occurred a median of 14.4 years before enrollment into ARMR. This proportion is higher than expected in the general population . Further, when compared with non-TBI patients, a significantly greater proportion of patients with a history of mTBI had CM. While, TBI has been reported as an independent risk factor for CM , the occurrence of chronic daily headache is not necessarily related to the proximity of the TBI .
The patients in the mTBI group had significantly greater headache-related disability over the prior 3months and more work productivity impairment due to headache in the past 7days , compared to those without a history of mTBI. This underscores the likelihood that a history of mTBI is associated with a more severe clinical phenotype of migraine that may persist for many years after the TBI event, regardless of having a CM diagnosis.
Migraine As A Risk Factor For Subclinical Brain Lesions: The Camera Study
The CAMERA studyis a population-based case-control MRI study in an unbiased sample of 295 migraine cases and 140 age-and sex-matched non-migraine controls. The participants were randomly-selected from a previously diagnosed sample from the Dutch general population. This epidemiologic approach minimized the role of potential selection bias, and a proper, multistep method to establish the migraine diagnosis minimized the possibility of diagnostic misclassification and recall bias. Sensitive imaging and lesion rating methods, including full brain covering thin T2 and FLAIR slices, blinded expert reading, and semi-quantitative lesion volume quantification, minimized the possibility of lesion misclassification. The complete description of the cohort, with several baseline measurements available from the GEM-study, allowed to statistically control for relevant confounders. This is important as many brain lesions in population based samples result from cardio-vascular risk factors. These measures resulted in a study population that was well characterized using standardized measures. The cohort includes migraine sufferers with general migraine symptomatology and average migraine severity.
When Should I Seek Immediate Help Or Contact My Healthcare Provider
- You are experiencing the worst headache of my life.
- You are having neurologic symptoms that youve never had before, including speaking difficulty, balance problems, vision problems, mental confusion, seizures or numbing/tingling sensations.
- Your headache comes on suddenly.
- You have a headache after experiencing a head injury.
Schedule a visit with your healthcare provider if:
- The number or severity of your headaches increase or your headache pattern changes.
- Your medications no longer seem to be working or youre experiencing new or different side effects.
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What Are The Types Of Headaches What Type Of Headache Is A Migraine
There are over 150 types of headaches, divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. A migraine is a primary headache, meaning that it isnt caused by a different medical condition. Primary headache disorders are clinical diagnoses, meaning theres no blood test or imaging study to diagnose it. A secondary headache is a symptom of another health issue.
Long & Short Term Symptoms Of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Besides the immediate symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, there are also some very alarming long term effects of exposure.
Carbon monoxide poisoning can result in permanent effects that make life difficult and change ones relationship with family and friends.
Nobody should be made to suffer permanently due to faulty or careless action by another. This is why it is vital to receive legal representation if you or someone you know has suffered from carbon monoxide poisoning.
Carbon monoxide poisoning long term side effects can include:
- Permanent brain damage
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Complex Migraines And Memory Loss
Migraine symptoms known as Aura are linked to the nervous system and sight. These are mild, physical symptoms that can last from 5 to 20 minutes after which the migraine attack begins.
The Migraine attack is when the headache begins as a dull ache and quickly develops into throbbing pain. You may then experience nausea, vomiting, and fainting alongside the migraine. The migraine can last from up to 4 hours to several days.
The Migraine Postdrome is when the migraine and you experience tiredness, muscle pain, weakness or exhaustion, and change in food cravings and unusual appetite.
Although both men and women suffer from migraines, women are more at risk than men. Family history and medical conditions such as depression, anxiety, and sleeping disorders are associated with migraines.
Migraines can be triggered by hormonal changes, stress, excessive intake of foods such as cheese, alcohol, and caffeine. Certain drugs and medicines can also trigger migraines in people.
Patients With Migraine Are Often Concerned That The Disorder Will Lead To Permanent Damage This Fear Is Exacerbated When A Brain Scan Shows Lesions Dr Peter Goadsby Explains Why This Fear Is Unfounded
Dr. Peter Goadsby is a neurologist, a professor of neurology and director of the NIHR Wellcome Trust at Kings Clinical Research Facility in London, a professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, and will be the president-elect of the American Headache Society. He spoke with AHS to clear up common misconceptions about migraine and long-term brain damage.
Many patients with migraine fear permanent brain damage due to the severity of their head pain. What does your research tell us about the development of brain lesion in migraine patients?
Many of the patients I see with migraine are concerned that the migraine attacks or the disease is causing permanent damage. To the best of our understanding, thats completely wrong. Migraine patients do not have to be worried about long-term brain damage. It simply doesnt happen.
How do you know its wrong, and what can be done to set the record straight?
There are two very good studies which address this problem. One is called the CAMERA Study.
The other big study is called the EVA Study. Its a French population-based study where patients born between 1922 and 1932 were scanned. Their history was taken. They werent examined. They were diagnosed with migraine with and without aura, and of course there were the controls. They had a battery of 10 cognitive tests, including tests of brain function. There was no correlation with the brain changes and any cognitive dysfunction.
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What Commonly Triggers A Migraine
People who get migraines may be able to identify triggers that seem to kick off the symptoms. Some possible triggers include the following:
- Stress and other emotions
- Biological and environmental conditions, such as hormonal shifts or exposure to light or smells
- Fatigue and changes in one’s sleep pattern
- Glaring or flickering lights
Studies Of Volumetric Changes
We identified 9 clinic-based studies that used VBM and DTI to assess GM and WM regions in migraineurs and controls ., Seven studies reported reduced GM density in brain regions in migraineurs compared to controls., In addition, one study found increased GM density in the periaqueductal gray and the dorsolateral pons, but only in patients with MA. In 5 studies, attack frequency and disease duration,,, were correlated with GM reduction in migraineurs in the frontal,,, temporal,, and parietal lobes, the limbic system, the cingulate cortex,,, the brainstem,, and the cerebellum., One study reported that patients with chronic migraine had a volume loss mainly in the anterior cingulate cortex and in several other areas, compared to patients with episodic migraine , indicating an association between attack frequency and GM reduction, especially in the ACC.
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Lets Answer Your Question: Do Dogs Get Brain Freeze
Often referred to as an ice cream headache or cold stimulus headache, brain freeze is a well-known condition that can affect an extensive array of dogs.
In simple terms: Brain freeze is basically a painful headache, but it normally doesnt last too long.
In more scientific terms: Brain freeze causes a change in blood flow in a dogs mouth, throat, and sinuses area, which ultimately results in local vasoconstriction. This condition causes the blood vessels to constrict. The change in blood vessels is why many dogs experience pain.
What Medications Are Used To Relieve Migraine Pain
Over-the-counter medications are effective for some people with mild to moderate migraines. The main ingredients in pain relieving medications are ibuprofen, aspirin, acetaminophen, naproxen and caffeine.
Three over-the-counter products approved by the Food and Drug Administration for migraine headaches are:
- Excedrin® Migraine.
- Advil® Migraine.
- Motrin® Migraine Pain.
Be cautious when taking over-the-counter pain relieving medications. Sometimes overusing them can cause analgesic-rebound headaches or a dependency problem. If you’re taking any over-the-counter pain medications more than two to three times a week, report that to your healthcare provider. They may suggest prescription medications that may be more effective.
Prescription drugs for migraine headaches include:
Triptan class of drugs :
- Co-enzyme Q10.
Drugs to relieve migraine pain come in a variety of formulations including pills, tablets, injections, suppositories and nasal sprays. You and your healthcare provider will discuss the specific medication, combination of medications and formulations to best meet your unique headache pain.
Drugs to relieve nausea are also prescribed, if needed.
All medications should be used under the direction of a headache specialist or healthcare provider familiar with migraine therapy. As with any medication, it’s important to carefully follow the label instructions and your healthcare providers advice.
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Whats The Link Between Migraines And Brain Lesions
Experts arenât sure why migraines are linked with brain lesions. But these things may play a role:
- Blood clots and shortages. Migraine attacks may lower blood flow and pressure. They can also cause blood vessels to shrink. This sets the stage for tiny blood clots or a lack of blood to certain areas of the brain.
- Tissue damage. During a migraine, the nerves in your brain kind of go haywire. They may work overtime and become inflamed.
- Heart problems. Migraines are linked to two heart conditions: Patent foramen ovale is a hole in the heart. Mitral valve prolapse is when heart valves donât close fully, which may can cause a small leak. Both issues may lead to lesions.
Are White Matter Lesions A Suggestion That There Is Another Disease Process Than Plain Vanilla Migraine
The phenomenon of CADASIL points out that Migraine may not be one disease. As Migraine is a “committee diagnosis“, it may easily contain within it many distinct diseases, and furthermore, one diseases treatment might not work for another. Recent genetic studies in migraine would support this idea as well. It may be that there is a gene or group of genes, associated with headaches, that is responsible for white matter lesions. In the future, we may want to split up migraine into subvariants, one of which is migraine with white matter lesions. In our practice in Chicago, we often start with verapamil for prevention of migraine with white matter lesions.
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Migraine With Or Without Aura
Migraine with aura and migraine without aura are the most common of post-traumatic or post-TBI headache disorders. Veterans who endure a brain injury may be particularly vulnerable to the onset of migraine versus any other headache disorder.8 These types are differentiated primarily through the sensory symptoms that occur in conjunction with the direct head pain. For example:
- Light sensitivity or
- Visual or other aura
Some have even hypothesized that disability may be one of the greatest predictors of migraine when compared with other headache-related conditions that follow TBI. This may be due to the higher risk for disability, prolonged recovery and other poor outcomes for those with TBI-caused migraine.9,10
As we have discussed, migraine with aura adds pre-attack visual and sensory disturbances to the list of symptoms. Although it is less frequent than migraine without aura in the general population, experts have shown that it may be the most likely headache disorder following sports-related traumatic brain injuries, occurring for approximately 45% of patients. This compares with about one in four who go on to develop chronic but non-aura migraine.11
How Do Microwaves Affect Your Brain
Microwave radiation affects the brain in a few different ways. First, electromagnetic radiation that is like that put off by microwaves can be absorbed by organisms, and humans are organisms. When a microwave is transmitted, it can be absorbed by the brain and can change the overall electrical activity of the brain. Microwave radiation can cause issues like sleep disorders, issues with learning and memory, and even problems with the central nervous system and its functions since this organ is the most sensitive to microwave radiation.
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A Common Disorder With Long
According to the Migraine Research Foundation, migraine ranks in the top 20 for the worlds most disabling medical illnesses. Every 10 seconds, a person in the US visits the emergency room as a result of a headache or migraine.
For a disorder that is so common, the researchers stress that it is important to understand the long-term effects a migraine can have on the brain.
They add that guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology and the US Headache Consortium suggest that people with migraines who have normal neurological examinations do not need routine MRI scans.
Only patients with atypical headache, a recent change in headache pattern, other symptoms , or focal neurologic symptoms or signs are recommended for MRI of the brain, the researchers say.
Patients with WMAs can be reassured. Patients with ILLs should be evaluated for stroke risk factors. Volumetric MRI remains a research tool.
Dr. Messoud Ashina of the University of Copenhagen and lead study author says that further research is needed to fully determine the link between migraine and long-term brain structure.
Migraine affects about 10 to 15% of the general population and can cause a substantial personal, occupational and social burden, he adds.
We hope that through more study, we can clarify the association of brain structure changes to attack frequency and length of the disease. We also want to find out how these lesions may influence brain function.
Significance Of Brain Lesions In Migraine
The data from the population-based CAMERA study support and extend the results from earlier studies, and indicate that migraine is associated with a significantly increased risk of subclinical and clinical ischemic brain lesions.The robustness of the methods and the validity of the findings have been acknowledged.
Our cross-sectional findings suggest migraine attacks may lead to brain lesions and iron depositions. Our conclusions regarding the temporality of the associations are supported by the finding of a higher risk of lesions in those with higher attack frequencies or longer migraine history. To show ongoing migraine attacks lead to progression of lesions, we need follow-up data showing that there is a higher rate of developing new lesions, and more lesion progression over time in migraine cases, compared to progression of lesions in controls. In addition, identification of a linear relationship between migraine severity and volume of lesions , will increase the likelihood of a causal relationship.
Confirmation that recurrence of migraine attacks is indeed associated with an increasing risk of brain lesions and/or brain dysfunction, will change migraine from an episodic disorder to a chronic-episodic or chronic progressive disorder. Such a shift in conceptualization of the disease also will change goals of treatments, and prevention of migraine may then potentially need to become an important target for secondary prevention in the general population.
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When Migraine Mimics Stroke
The symptoms of some types of migraine can mimic stroke, such as hemiplegic migraine where there is weakness down one side.
Migraine auras can be confused with transient ischaemic attack , where someone has stroke symptoms that pass in a short time. For instance, a migraine with only a visual aura but no headache may be mistaken for TIA.
Like a stroke, a migraine can be sudden and can lead to mild confusion. However, migraine aura symptoms tend to develop relatively slowly and then spread and intensify, while the symptoms of a TIA or stroke are sudden.
Migraine can sometimes be mistaken for a stroke caused by bleeding on the brain, called a subarachnoid haemorrhage , which is often characterised by a sudden, very severe headache. Unlike SAH, migraine headache is usually one-sided and throbbing, slow to come on and lasts for a shorter period of time. Vomiting usually starts after a migraine headache starts, but is likely to happen at the same time as headache during a SAH. Patients with a SAH also develop neck stiffness, which is uncommon during a migraine attack.
Ologic Comments And Concerns
Clinic-based and population-based studies provide complementary perspectives on the potential influence of migraine on brain structure but interpretation should be cautious. The literature on structural MRI in migraine is difficult to interpret for several reasons as discussed below. We will first consider limitations and strengths common to all of these studies and then those that are specific to clinic-based and population-based studies.
All the imaging studies evaluate heterogeneous groups of subjects because migraine itself is a heterogeneous disorder. Studies vary widely in sample size, subject selection , headache characteristics , test methodology, timing of study, and data interpretation. Inadequately measured or unmeasured confounding is always possible, although the authors measured and adjusted for many potential confounders, particularly in the larger population-based studies. Both the clinic-based and population-based studies are for the most part cross-sectional. They demonstrate associations between migraine and brain structures, but do not reveal the directionality of the association. It is logically possible that some brain changes in migraine are a consequence of illness or treatment but other changes may reflect the vulnerability to migraine.
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What Are The Signs Of Brain Freeze In Dogs
As a loving pet owner, you probably want to know the signs of brain freeze in dogs. By recognizing these signs, youll be able to provide the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. If your dog is experiencing any of the following signs, theres a good chance that it has a brain freeze.
- Pain in the forehead or face
- Extremely strange behavior
- Widened eyes and mouth
- Whimpering or crying
Do you notice any of these signs in your dog? Does your pet exhibit critical signs of stress in a dog? If so, youll want to provide treatment in a timely manner.