Outcome Measures And Relevant Variables
Our primary goal was to investigate the association between migraine and the risk of incident CKD after adjusting for age, sex and other confounding factors. The outcomes and comorbidities were identified by examining the A-codes and ICD-9-CM codes . The primary outcome was incident CKD as defined by the A-codes and ICD-9-CM codes . Both the migraine and non-migraine cohorts were followed from the index date to the date of the first CKD occurrence, the date they withdrew from the insurance system or the end of 2013. Major comorbid diseases diagnosed at least twice before the index date were defined as baseline comorbidities based on the claims data. The comorbid conditions included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, coronary artery disease , congestive heart failure , stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . The Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were used to quantify the severity of the baseline comorbidities. Additionally, the long-term medications, according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes defined by WHO, thought to be associated with renal outcomes, including anti-diabetic agents, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers , beta-blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , analgesic drugs other than NSAIDs, statins and anti-migraine agents, were also recorded .
Supplementary file 2
How Does Eating Diet And Nutrition Affect High Blood Pressure And Kidney Disease
Following a healthy eating plan can help lower your blood pressure. Reducing the amount of sodium in your diet is an important part of any healthy eating plan. Your health care professional may recommend the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan. DASH focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods that are healthy for your heart and lower in sodium, which often comes from salt. The DASH eating plan
- is low in fat and cholesterol
- features fat-free or low-fat milk and dairy products, fish, poultry, and nuts
- suggests less red meat, sweets, added sugars, and sugar-containing beverages
- is rich in nutrients, protein, and fiber
A registered dietitian can help tailor your diet to your kidney disease. If you have congestive heart failure or edema, a diet low in sodium intake can help reduce edema and lower blood pressure. Reducing saturated fat and cholesterol can help control high levels of lipids, or fats, in the blood.
People with advanced kidney disease should speak with their health care professional about their diet.
How Is Kidney Disease Managed
Chronic kidney disease cannot be cured. And once started, its difficult to halt its progression. So, awareness of kidney disease and its early detection offers the best opportunity to alter it course.
Making lifestyle changes including losing weight, stopping smoking, controlling blood sugar levels and making healthy dietary choices cannot be emphasised enough as these factors slow progression of kidney disease, mainly through improved blood pressure control.
Reducing levels of protein in the diet may slow disease progression. However, people can have trouble sticking to a low-protein diet.
People with chronic kidney disease also need to be monitored, not just for declining kidney function but also so they dont develop complications such as anaemia, bone disease, malnutrition and heart disease.
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What Is Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic kidney disease causes numerous cysts to form in both kidneys. It is a genetic disease, meaning you inherit it from your parents.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that sit in the upper part of the abdomen. They filter wastes and extra fluid from the blood, which get passed out of the body in the form of urine. The kidneys also regulate the amount of certain vital substances in the body, such as electrolytes.
As we age, all of us are prone to develop kidney cysts. They are very common. However, with polycystic kidney disease there are many more cysts than normal, and they cause problems in the body.
When polycystic kidney disease causes numerous cysts to form in the kidneys, the kidneys get severely enlarged. The cysts take the place of normal kidney tissue. With less normal kidney tissue, the kidneys cannot function as well.
Eventually the kidneys may fail. This happens in about half of people with the most common type of polycystic kidney disease. When that happens, the patient needs renal replacement therapy. That means dialysis by a machine that acts as a kidney and filters the blood or receiving a kidney transplant. Usually a person can live with polycystic kidney disease for many years before the kidneys fail.
Though its name makes it sound like it only affects the kidneys, polycystic kidney disease can also cause cysts in the liver and pancreas. It can also cause problems in other organs, such as aneurysms in the brain .
How Common Is Chronic Kidney Disease
- Chronic kidney disease affects 14% of the US population.
- 17,600 kidney transplants occured in the US in 2013 one-third came from living donors.
- Kidney disease is more common among Hispanic, African American, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Native American people.
- Older age, female gender, diabetes, hypertension, higher body mass index , and cardiovascular disease are associated with a higher incidence of chronic kidney disease.
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What Are The Kidneys And What Do They Do
Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from each kidney to the bladder through a pair of thin tubes called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract system.
Kidney Disease As A Result Of My Migraines
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I had my first migraine when I was 17. Mine are not nearly as severe as many that I have read about. In fact, I had no idea that they were migraines. I simply thought that I was having a headache. And so, when I experienced a migraine, I took Aspirin. Usually, it would go away, although I had some that lasted two or three days. Most often, the second and third day were not nearly as severe.
I got married and had children and you have to function so I continued taking aspirin. In fact, I took so many that my husband and mother-in-law told me I would destroy my stomach. So I switched to Advil which became my new drug of choice. And I went through bottles of my new drug.
Sure enough, the Advil and the Aspirin did destroy my stomach. I would take a pill and have stomach pain for 3-5 days. So, I finally went to the doctor who, after running some tests to rule out a tumor, diagnosed me with migraines. She also gave me some new abortives including Maxalt. And I went to the Cedar Sinai Pain Clinic in Los Angeles and got preventatives that worked for 25 years.
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Fatigue Being Tired All Of The Time
Why this happens:
Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin , or EPO, that tells your body to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they make less EPO. With fewer red blood cells to carry oxygen, your muscles and brain tire very quickly. This is anemia, and it can be treated.
What patients said:
I was constantly exhausted and didn’t have any pep or anything.
I would sleep a lot. I’d come home from work and get right in that bed.
A Connection Between Migraines And Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic Kidney Disease progresses slowly. Most often, patients need to fight against it for the rest of their life. This may cause a series of problems both physically and mentally. Because of these problems, CKD patients are more likely to have migraines.
Communicating with people with Chronic Kidney Disease, we will find quite a number of patients are tormented by either occasional or frequent migraines. Usually, migraines are connected with CKD, by four reasons.
1. High blood pressure
As kidneys have an function of regulating blood pressure, diseased kidneys cause hypertension easily. Whats worse, the more advanced kidney disease, the higher blood pressure. In most cases, hypertension occurs accompanying with headache or migraine, palpitation and hidrosis.
2. Some certain types of kidney disease
CKD contains many types of kidney disease. If yours is Polycystic Kidney Disease , brain aneurysm is one most common symptom. With the growth of brain aneurysm, it will oppress cerebral nerve, thus resulting in migraines easily. On the other hand, if brain aneurysm ruptures, it will cause more severe problems.
3. Mental stress
Long-term kidney disease may cause big mental stress on patients, because some of them are pressured by financial problem or some others are tormented by severe complications. Then, they dont want to talk more about their medical condition with family members, friends and other people. This big mental stress is another reason for migraine.
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Dialysis And Peritoneal Access Dialysis
In end-stage kidney disease, kidney functions can be replaced only by dialysis or by kidney transplantation. The planning for dialysis and transplantation is usually started in stage 4 of chronic kidney disease. Most patients are candidates for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis . There are few differences in outcomes between the two procedures. The physician or an educator will discuss the appropriate options with the patient and help them make a decision that will match their personal and medical needs. It is best to choose a modality of dialysis after understanding both procedures and matching them to one’s lifestyle, daily activities, schedule, distance from the dialysis unit, support system, and personal preference.
The doctor will consider multiple factors when recommending the appropriate point to start dialysis, including the patient’s laboratory work and actual or estimated glomerular filtration rate, nutritional status, fluid volume status, the presence of symptoms compatible with advanced kidney failure, and risk of future complications. Dialysis is usually started before individuals are very symptomatic or at risk for life-threatening complications.
There are two types of dialysis 1) hemodialysis and 2) peritoneal dialysis. Before dialysis can be initiated, a dialysis access has to be created.
Report Problems With Your Medications To The Fda
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
For more information, visit the Duke Health Pain Disorders Center
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Signs Of Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a syndrome that indicates that there is a problem with the kidneys which leads to the person losing substantial amounts of protein via their urine.It can affect people of any age, but is most often the source of kidney problems in toddlers, children and teenagers. A syndrome is a group of symptoms that often occur together and develop as a result of another condition.
In children, this kidney problem is usually caused by a kidney disorder known as minimal change disease. More boys than girls are affected, and most children will experience the condition between the ages of 18 months and four years.
In adults, nephrotic syndrome is often caused by 2 kidney conditions that are associated with e.g. diabetes, autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, or infections such as Hepatitis B or C, or HIV infection. Furthermore, severe preeclampsia is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in pregnant women.
Symptoms of nephrotic syndrome include:
- Loss of appetite
- Hypoalbuminemia, low levels of the protein albumin in the blood
- Albuminuria, high levels of albumin in the urine
Proteinuria and edema are the two most distinctive symptoms of nephrotic disorder. Edema, particularly around the eyes, is one of the first visible signs of nephrotic syndrome.
When To Watch Out For Your Kidneys When Taking Medicines For Pain
If you are older, your kidneys may have a stronger reaction to these medicines and you may need a smaller dose. Kidney disease from pain medicines is often preventable. You can change your risk by how you take medicines. To avoid kidney problems, it is important to follow the instructions on the label.
With that being said, touching the kidney area will usually cause pain. Other characteristic symptoms may include fever, hematuria, an inability to urinate , decreased alertness, rapid heart rate , and abdominal pain and swelling. 5 Symptoms like these warrant emergency treatment.
If you have one or more of the 15 symptoms below, or worry about kidney problems, see a doctor for blood and urine tests. Many of the symptoms on this list can be caused by other health problems. The only way to know the cause of YOUR symptoms is to see your doctor. NOTE: Low back pain is not a sign of kidney disease.
Nonprescription pain medicines should not be used without your doctors permission if you know you have low kidney function. Also, even if your kidney function is good, longterm use with high doses of these pain drugs may harm the kidneys. Kidney damage happens because high doses of the drugs have a harmful effect on kidney tissue and structures.
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Can Kidney Problems Cause Brain Fog
In its early stages, Chronic Kidney Disease often causes no symptoms, but as it progresses it can cause signs and symptoms of nausea and vomiting fatigue problems sleeping reduced urine output brain fog or problems concentrating loss of appetite swelling of the feet and ankles muscle twinges or cramps and
Signs And Symptoms Of Chronic Kidney Failure
Your kidneys are vital for the excretory process of wastes in the body. As you know, these waste buildups are excreted as urine. When the kidneys job of cleaning blood toxins and waste products deteriorates, “Chronic Kidney Disease” occurs.
Mostly, kidney failure occurs in asymptomatic patients. Risk of sudden death is also counted.
In a small market, we gathered blood and urine samples of 100 people who claim to be healthy. Surprisingly, 22 people were suffering from chronic kidney disease, and 37 people were in need of special medical attention for kidney disease! Only 41 people were considered normal!
Why the majority of kidney disease victims did not notice their declining kidney function?
In the case of Mr. A at 32 years old, he felt sudden severe headache and palpitation. He seek medical attention and was diagnosed with kidney disease. He had to go through a strict diet. However, after 6 years of hard life, he is now forced to undergo kidney dialysis. In most cases of kidney disease, renal impairment is almost irreversible and has a small chance of recovery.
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Who Is At Risk
Kidney disease is related to and caused by a number of different factors and conditions. As many as one in three Australians have at least one risk factor for chronic kidney disease.
Indigenous Australians are at risk with this risk increasing the more remotely they live. People with a family history of kidney disease are particularly vulnerable to it. Diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke and being over 60 are additional risks.
The number of people with chronic kidney disease is forecast to increase by 60% by 2020, largely due to diabetes and obesity becoming more common.
Anyone who has had an episode of acute kidney injury is also at risk of later developing chronic kidney disease.
Less common causes of kidney disease are inflammation of the kidney, or glomerulonephritis. We dont known what causes many forms of glomerulonephritis. But sometimes an infection triggers it.
For instance, while streptococcal infection that leads to glomerulonephritis is rarely seen in non-Indigenous people, this is a significant concern in Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities, with 15-20% suffering from it.
In other cases, someones own immune system damages the kidney tissue to cause glomerulonephritis. This may be triggered by an infection such as hepatitis B or C or from a yet unidentified source.
Have a cup of tea, a Bex and a good lie down.
Unlike Most Health Issues The Trio Of Hypertension Kidney Disease And Abnormal Liver Are Even More Dangerous Because We Rarely Feel The Effects Of Them Until Its Too Late
Can kidney problems cause hypertension. If your kidneys blood vessels are damaged they may no longer work properly. Your kidneys play a key role in keeping your blood pressure in a healthy range. High blood pressure is the second biggest cause of kidney disease.
Many people believe that renal failure causes a dramatic decrease in blood pressure but it is actually the opposite. Be on guard for the other two. Bu Ive heard that hypertensive people are more likely to have a kidney stone.
Low blood pressure can cause chronic kidney failure. If you have kidney disease you can develop high blood pressure. High blood pressure is not only a cause of kidney disease.
High blood pressure can cause CKD while CKD can also cause high blood pressure. When the kidneys are damages or fail this hormone may increase and cause high blood pressure. Can Kidney Failure Cause Low Blood Pressure.
There is a lot of confusion about the link between kidney failure and blood pressure. As a result blood pressure increases. And if you have high blood pressure that is not well controlled that can eventually cause kidney disease says Dr.
The high blood pressure that results can then make kidney disease worse. Kidney failure Serious damage from a kidney infection can cause. Over time high blood pressure harms renal blood vessels Damaged kidney arteries do not filter blood well.
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