Environmental And Genetic Triggers
, some researchers believe that substances in the brain may build up and cause inflammation, leading to migraine.
Genes and environmental triggers may also play a role in this inflammation.
They also note that although migraine is more common in females, males are more likely to develop migraine with aura.
When To Call A Professional
If you have a history of migraine, you should contact your doctor if you develop headaches that differ from your usual headache or other migraine symptoms. Examples include:
- Headaches that get worse over time
- New onset of migraine in a person over age 40
- Severe headaches that start suddenly
- Headaches that worsen with exercise, sexual intercourse, coughing or sneezing
- Headaches with unusual symptoms such as passing out, loss of vision, or difficulty walking or speaking
- Headaches that start after a head injury
In addition, you may want to see your health care professional if you have headaches that do not get better with over-the-counter medications severe headaches that interrupt work or the enjoyment of daily activities or daily headaches.
It’s Time For Migraine Treatment To Address The Pain From Every Angle
It is well documented that our thoughts, feelings, and beliefs have an enormous impact on our physical well-being. In other words – the mindbody connection is much more powerful than we could have imagined. According to the latest studies, letting go of past resentments can lower your blood pressure, writing about traumatic events can alleviate physical symptoms of chronic pain, and your personal beliefs about stress have a direct impact on your mortality .
Migraines are no exception to this phenomenon. There is clinical evidence that the degree of migraine disability is correlated with our attitudes and feelings about the migraines themselves. Feelings of fear and avoidance play a huge role as well, leading to increased migraine frequency and decreased quality of life for many migraine sufferers. All the while, attempts to find relief through medication prove to be largely futile for migraine sufferers: mainstream drugs offer no more relief than placebos, and medication overuse leads to increased frequency of migraine attacks.
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The Need For Understanding
Despite of thousands of studies, the major problem to progress with diagnosis and therapy of asthma seems to be the lack of understanding how different cell types and pro-inflammatory, as well as inflammatory mechanisms affect each other. It would be a big step forward if future studies would be able to monitor a small cohort of patients from the first diagnosis of asthma over several years with unchanged methods of analysis. These studies should obtain samples like blood, sputum, or bronchial fluids on a regular basis of short intervals , and compare the clinical parameters with metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic analyse. The aim of such studies should be to determine if biomarkers and therapeutic targets for asthma vary with time, and condition, or if they are stable indicators for the disease. Only when we know if the biomarkers are stable or specific for a condition such as exacerbation or allergic response we will be able to use them as diagnostic tools.
Treatment Of Adult Migraines
Migraine treatment depends on several factors and treatment plans may be individualized. Some of the treatments of migraines in adults include things like over-the-counter and prescription pain relievers, medications to dilate blood vessels and block pain, caffeine combination drugs and medications to treat symptoms of nausea and pain.
One of the more exciting developments in headache medicine concerns new CGRP drugs that are designed specifically for migraine prevention. Prominent headache specialists like Dr. Amaal Starling have labeled it a “new era” for patient treatment. Aimovig is the first of these medications to hit the market and be approved by the FDA early results have been promising, but there are still questions about long-term effectiveness and possible side effects. But still, patients have reason to be optimistic.
Some may find relief in alternative therapies, such as:
- Relaxation techniques
1Bigal ME, Liberman JN, Lipton RB. Age-dependent prevalence and clinical features of migraine. Neurology. 2006 Jul 25 67:246-51.
2Carod-Artal FJ. Tackling chronic migraine: current perspectives. Journal of Pain Research. 2014 7:185-194. doi:10.2147/JPR.S61819.
3Kelman L. Migraine changes with age: IMPACT on migraine classification. Headache. 2006 Jul-Aug 46:1161-71.
4Stewart WF1, Bigal ME, Kolodner K, Dowson A, Liberman JN, Lipton RB. Familial risk of migraine: variation by proband age at onset and headache severity. Neurology. 2006 Feb 14 66:344-8.
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Headache And Migraine Types For Older Patients
Although migraine may diminish late in life, there still remains numerous other variations of headache disorders that can be diagnosed in patients. For instance, typical migraine aura without headache is a migraine subtype that is often observed in elderly patients and comes with visual and sensory disturbances as well as other hallmark symptoms.
Medication overuse headache is a secondary disorder that may also affect up to one-third of elderly patients with migraine-like complications. Interestingly, researchers have found that those with new onset headaches in their later years may have an even greater risk when compared with those who have been living with migraine for the majority of their adult life.1,8
In addition to migraine, the elderly may experience so-called hypnic headaches which are age specific to this population. These headaches regularly awaken patients from sleep at specific times in the night and can last for up to an hour symptoms typically include dull pain but do not have other strong migraine symptoms .9 Tension-type headache and chronic daily headache are other disorders that are also typical in the geriatric population.
What Is Asthma And What Causes It
Asthma can start during early childhood or develop later in life the cause is most often unknown or identified as an allergic response of the upper airways to any environmental triggers. An asthma attack cannot only be induced by allergens, but also by sudden changes of air humidity or temperature, as well as inhalation of fumes generated by evaporation of chemicals, or from cooking or heating. Besides inhaled triggers, asthma attacks can be resulted from psychological stress, sports or food allergens. The question which mechanism links all these diverse triggers to develop asthma remains open.
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Headache In Older Adults: Unique Causes And Treatments
Headache in older adults often represents a different diagnosis than in younger persons, and often with more serious consequences. Although primary headache is common in older adults, headaches secondary to underlying or comorbid conditions become more prevalent with age. The use of multiple chronic medications in the elderly also increases the risk for pharmacy-induced headache.1
It is important for clinicians to determine potential underlying causes quickly and accurately and to prescribe treatments that take into account comorbidities that older patients may have and medications that they may be taking for them.
Headaches in older adults are less common than in younger persons, but they are still a cause for concern.Although the prevalence of headache decreases after age 40, estimates in people over age 50 range from 12% to 50%, and frequent headaches are reported in up to 17% of people > 65 years old, compared with < 6% in people < 65 years old.1,2 Risk for secondary headache with potentially life-threatening consequences increases 10-fold in people > 65 years.1
Primary vs Secondary Causes
Migraine is a severe type of headache that usually lasts more than 4 hours and occurs more frequently in women. Although migraine headaches often diminish with increasing age, they still represent the second most common type of headache among older adults, with a 1-year prevalence of approximately 10%.1
Giant Cell Arteritis
Q: What Increases Your Risk For Adult
A: Most childhood asthma disappears in adulthood. But having childhood asthma increases your risk of a relapse in your 30s or 40s. Other factors that increase the risk of adult-onset asthma include:
- Being overweight or obese: A low level of physical activity, changes in lung physiology and higher levels of inflammation are among several factors at play.
- Being : Hormonal fluctuations in pregnancy and menopause can trigger asthma.
- Allergens: Cats, cigarette smoke, chemicals, mold or dust can trigger asthma.
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Menopause Changes Migraine For Older Women
As we have discussed previously, migraine for women tends to align with reproductive changes, from the beginning of menstruation to pregnancy and through to menopause. Specifically, the menopausal transition has been shown to cause noticeable adjustments in the frequency and severity of attacks for nearly two-thirds of women. This transition phase may be characterized by a worsening of symptoms, although studies show that post menopausal migraines may in fact decreasesimilar to changes experienced by adult pregnant women. In addition, more intense or regular menopausal symptoms like hot flashes or night time sweating may co-exist with a higher number of attacks.10
Treating Migraine With Aura
When a person begins experiencing aura symptoms, it can be helpful to move into a quiet, dark room and close the eyes. Placing a cold compress on the forehead or the back of the neck may also help ease migraine pain.
There are three main areas of treatment for migraine with aura. These are as follows:
- lifestyle and trigger management
- acute treatments, such as medications to stop a migraine episode while it is happening or reduce its severity or duration
- These include analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gepants, and ditans.
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How Is Adult Onset Asthma Diagnosed
Asthma symptoms can mimic other illnesses or diseasesespecially in older adults. Hiatal hernia, stomach problems or rheumatoid arthritis can create asthma-like symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has many of the same symptoms as asthma. COPD, which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is very common in older adults, especially those who are or have been smokers. To diagnose asthma, your physician will question you about your symptoms, do a physical exam, and conduct lung function tests. In addition, you may be tested for allergies. Your primary care physician may refer you to a pulmonologist or an allergist for specialized testing or treatment. If you have any asthma symptoms, dont ignore them or try to treat them yourself! Get a definitive diagnosis from your health care provider.
When New Symptoms Arise
Typical migraine symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and noise that accompany a throbbing or pulsating pain at the temples or front or back of one or both sides of the head. About 15 percent of people with migraines experience auras beforehand. These usually include visual changes such as flashing lights and blind spots but can involve changes in hearing and smell.
While symptoms can differ from person to person, most people will develop a headache pattern over time, says Lawrence Newman, M.D., director of the headache division at NYU Langone Health medical center in New York City.
But some migraine sufferers might begin to experience unusual symptoms after age 50, called late-life migraine accompaniments. Migraines can occur without head pain and might include blurred vision, numbness or tingling in the limbs, and slurred speech. Such symptoms usually resolve on their own within 15 to 60 minutes and arent serious, Newman says, but they are uncomfortable.
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Migraine Canand Often Doesget Worse In Adults
It is also during these years that we see the worsening of migraine, according to research. In fact, the number of “headache days” has been shown to increase year after year, reaching its peak in late adult life. This coincides with the transformation of episodic to chronic migraine for many adults as represented by an increase in the number of migraine attacks.2 Although it is unclear exactly why this occurs, risk factors include: medication overuse high body mass and the presence of emotional symptoms like depression.
Migraines In The Elderly Is It Really Brain Trauma
Migraines are some of the worst pain a human being can ever experience. It can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on just one side of the head. Its often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound.
A migraine attack causes significant pain for hours to days and can be so severe that the pain is disabling. The best thing that can be said about a migraine is at least you a warning that an attack is on the way.
Warning symptoms can include flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling on one side of the face or in your arm or leg.
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Bipoc Communities And Migraine
The prevalence of migraine among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color in the United States has not been well studied.
Of course, the prevalence of a disease doesnt tell the whole story. A paper in the Journal of the National Medical Association looked into the experience of headache among Black Americans and found that compared with white people with headache, African American headache patients are more likely to be diagnosed with comorbid depressive disorders report headaches that are more frequent and severe in nature have their headaches underdiagnosed and/or undertreated and discontinue treatment prematurely, regardless of socioeconomic status.
- Only 47 percent of Black individuals with headaches have an official headache diagnosis, compared with 70 percent of white individuals.
- Latinos with headaches are 50 percent less likely to receive a migraine diagnosis than white individuals.
- Only 14 percent of Black patients with headache receive prescriptions for acute migraine medications, compared with 37 percent of white patients with headache.
Dr. Kiarashi also noted that BIPOC communities were underrepresented in migraine and headache research, based on the sample of studies on headache and migraine that her team reviewed.
Migraine Treatment In The Elderly
Migraine treatment in older individuals depends on several factors and treatment plans will need to be individualized. Some of the treatments of geriatric migraines include things like weight modification, exercise and the use of intravenous and/or oral medications. The use of certain drugs may not be possible in the elderly due to other medical conditions which prohibit their use.4 In addition, the higher percentage of triptan-influenced rebound headaches in those over the age of 50 years can also limit treatment options.
Ultimately, identifying more effective treatments that reduce and prevent migraine attacks are sorely neededespecially for elderly patients.
1Song T-J, Kim Y-J, Kim B-K, et al. Characteristics of Elderly-Onset Headache Diagnosed Using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. Journal of Clinical Neurology . 2016 12:419-425. doi:10.3988/jcn.2016.12.4.419.
2Martins KM, Bordini CA, Bigal ME, Speciali JG. Migraine in the elderly: a comparison with migraine in young adults. Headache. 2006 Feb 46:312-6.
3Kelman L. Migraine changes with age: IMPACT on migraine classification. Headache. 2006 Jul-Aug 46:1161-71.
4Hershey LA, Bednarczyk EM. Treatment of Headache in the Elderly. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2013 15:56-62. doi:10.1007/s11940-012-0205-6.
9Lisotto C, Mainardi F, Maggioni F, Zanchin G. Episodic hypnic headache? Cephalalgia. 2004 Aug 24:681-5.
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Managing Your Asthma Well In Later Life
Continue to have regular asthma reviews
Whether youve had asthma all your life or youve been diagnosed with it as an older adult, an asthma review helps you stay on top of any changes in your symptoms.
You can make sure your asthma action plan is up to date, review your asthma medicines, and check youre taking the lowest dose possible to stay well and avoid side effects.
Track your symptoms
Keeping track of your symptoms makes it easier to spot any changes. Write down your symptoms in a diary, notebook, or on your phone and take it along to your next appointment.
Remember to make a note of anything you were doing that day or any triggers you came across you may notice youre sensitive to new things that were not a problem before.
Dont ignore symptoms like breathlessness, says Dr Andy. Its easy to think that feeling a bit more breathless is just another sign that youre not as fit as you used to be.
But if youre feeling out of breath climbing stairs or walking uphill, see your GP to get it checked out. Breathlessness can be a sign that your asthma is not well controlled. It could also be a sign of another health condition.
Act quickly if symptoms get worse
To cut your risk of an asthma attack, take action as soon as you notice symptoms getting worse. As we get older, asthma attacks can be more severe and take longer to recover from.
Check your inhaler technique
What Is Migraine Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment And Prevention
Migraine is a neurological disease characterized by repeated episodes of symptoms, called attacks, that usually include headache, often accompanied by nausea vomiting sensitivity to light, touch, smell, or sound dizziness visual disturbances and tingling or numbness in the face, hands, or feet.
Migraine attacks may come on suddenly without warning, or they may be preceded by certain known triggers, such as skipping a meal, being exposed to smoke or air pollution, or experiencing a change in hormone levels as part of the menstrual cycle. Most migraine attacks last from 4 to 72 hours, although effective treatment can shorten them to a matter of hours. On the other hand, some migraine attacks can last even longer than 72 hours.
Having migraine can be disabling and can lead to missing days of school or work, being less productive at school or work, being unable to perform household responsibilities, and missing out on family, social, and leisure activities.
An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, and 39 million Americans, have migraine.
While a variety of triggers can set off migraine attacks, they dont directly cause the attacks or the underlying disease.
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